Significant Accounting Policies
|3 Months Ended|
Oct. 31, 2018
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2—Significant Accounting Policies
Use of Estimates
The accompanying condensed consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates include stock-based compensation, accounting for long-lived assets and accounting for income taxes, including the related valuation allowance on the deferred tax asset and uncertain tax positions. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. On an ongoing basis, the Company reviews its estimates to ensure that they appropriately reflect changes in the business or as new information becomes available. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
The Company operates in a single industry segment—the discovery and development of novel immunotherapeutic product candidates to improve treatment options for patients and physicians, intended to treat a wide range of oncology indications.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into cash and have an original maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be considered cash equivalents.
Concentrations and Credit Risk
The Company maintains cash balances at a small number of financial institutions and such balances commonly exceed the $250,000 amount insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company does not have significant credit risk with respect to such cash and cash equivalents.
Securities available for sale are recorded at fair value and unrealized gains and losses are reported, net of taxes, in accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) included in stockholders’ equity. Securities held to maturity are recorded at amortized cost based on the Company’s positive intent and ability to hold these securities to maturity. Realized gains and losses from sales of securities available for sale are determined on a specific identification basis and are included in other revenue – net.
Management evaluates whether securities available for sale and securities held to maturity are other-than-temporarily impaired (“OTTI”) on a quarterly basis. Debt securities with unrealized losses are considered OTTI if the Company intends to sell the security or if it is more likely than not that the Company will be required to sell such security prior to any anticipated recovery. If management determines that a security is OTTI under these circumstances, the impairment recognized in earnings is measured as the entire difference between the amortized cost and the then-current fair value.
Property and Equipment
The Company’s capitalization threshold is $5,000 for property and equipment. The cost of property and equipment is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. The useful lives of property and equipment for the purpose of computing depreciation are as follows:
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically assesses the carrying value of intangible and other long-lived assets, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset might not be recoverable. The assets are considered to be impaired if the Company determines that the carrying value may not be recoverable based upon its assessment, which includes consideration of the following events or changes in circumstances:
If the assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment recognized is the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Fair value is determined by the application of discounted cash flow models to project cash flows from the asset. In addition, the Company bases estimates of the useful lives and related amortization or depreciation expense on its subjective estimate of the period the assets will generate revenue or otherwise be used by it. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value, less selling costs. The Company also periodically reviews the lives assigned to long-lived assets to ensure that the initial estimates do not exceed any revised estimated periods from which the Company expects to realize cash flows from its assets.
Fair Value of Financial Instruments
The carrying amounts for cash, prepaid expenses, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to the short-term nature of these instruments. It is management’s opinion that the Company is not exposed to significant interest, currency, or credit risks arising from its other financial instruments and that their fair values approximate their carrying values except where expressly disclosed.
The accounting standard for fair value measurements provides a framework for measuring fair value and requires disclosures regarding fair value measurements. Fair value is defined as the price that would be received to sell an asset or paid to transfer a liability in an orderly transaction between market participants at the measurement date, based on the Company’s principal or, in absence of a principal, most advantageous market for the specific asset or liability.
The Company uses a three-tier fair value hierarchy to classify and disclose all assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis, as well as assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a non-recurring basis, in periods subsequent to their initial measurement. The hierarchy requires the Company to use observable inputs when available, and to minimize the use of unobservable inputs, when determining fair value.
The three tiers are defined as follows:
The development and determination of the unobservable inputs for Level 3 fair value measurements and fair value calculations are the responsibility of the Company’s Chief Financial Officer.
Changes in fair value measurements categorized within Level 3 of the fair value hierarchy are analyzed each period based on changes in estimates or assumptions and recorded as appropriate.
No such items existed as of October 31, 2018 and July 31, 2018.
Financial Instruments Not Recorded at Fair Value
Descriptions of the valuation methodologies and assumptions used to estimate the fair value of financial instruments not recorded at fair value are described below. The Company’s financial instruments not recorded at fair value but for which fair value can be approximated and disclosed include:
Securities Held to Maturity – The fair values of securities held to maturity are obtained using an independent third-party financial institution.
The Company assesses its warrants as either equity or a liability based upon the characteristics and provisions of each instrument. Warrants classified as equity are recorded at fair value as of the date of issuance on the Company’s balance sheet and no further adjustments to their valuation are made. Warrants classified as derivative liabilities and other derivative financial instruments that require separate accounting as liabilities are recorded on the Company’s balance sheet at their fair value on the date of issuance and are re-measured on each subsequent balance sheet date until such instruments are exercised or expire, with any changes in the fair value between reporting periods recorded as other income or expense. Management estimates the fair value of these liabilities using option pricing models and assumptions that are based on the individual characteristics of the warrants or other instruments on the valuation date, as well as assumptions for future financings, expected volatility, expected life, yield and risk-free interest rate. As of October 31, 2018 and July 31, 2018, all outstanding warrants issued by the Company were classified as equity.
Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes basic net loss per common share by dividing the applicable net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed by dividing the applicable net loss by the weighted-average number of common shares outstanding during the period plus additional shares to account for the dilutive effect of potential future issuances of common stock relating to stock options and other potentially dilutive securities using the treasury stock method.
The Company did not include shares underlying stock options, restricted stock units and warrants issued and outstanding during any of the periods presented in the computation of net loss per share, as the effect would have been anti-dilutive. The following potentially dilutive outstanding securities were excluded from diluted net loss per share because of their anti-dilutive effect:
The Company grants equity-based awards (typically stock options or restricted stock units) under our stock-based compensation plan and outside of our stock-based compensation plan, with terms generally similar to the terms under our stock-based compensation plan. The Company estimates the fair value of stock option awards using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. For employees, directors and consultants, the fair value of the award is measured on the grant date. Prior to the adoption of ASU 2018-07 on August 1, 2018, the fair value of the award for non-employees was generally re-measured on vesting dates and interim financial reporting dates until the service period was complete. The fair value amount is then recognized over the period during which services are required to be provided in exchange for the award, usually the vesting period. The Black-Scholes option valuation model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including price volatility of the underlying stock, risk-free interest rate, dividend yield, and expected life of the option. The Company estimates the fair value of restricted stock unit awards based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of issuance. Changes in assumptions used under the Black-Scholes option valuation model could materially affect the Company’s net loss and net loss per share.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
Employees may elect to participate in the Company’s stockholder approved employee stock purchase plan. The stock purchase plan allows for the purchase of the Company’s common stock at not less than 85% of the lesser of (i) the fair market value of a share of common stock on the beginning date of the offering period or (ii) the fair market value of a share of common stock on the purchase date of the offering period, subject to a share and dollar limit as defined in the plan and subject to the applicable legal requirements. There are two six-month offering periods during each fiscal year, ending on January 31 and July 31.
In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, the fair value of awards under the stock purchase plan is calculated at the beginning of each offering period. The Company estimates the fair value of the awards using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. The Black-Scholes option valuation model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including price volatility of the underlying stock, risk-free interest rate, dividend yield, and the offering period. This fair value is then amortized at the beginning of the offering period. Stock-based compensation expense is based on awards expected to be purchased at the beginning of the offering period, and therefore is reduced when participants withdraw during the offering period.
Rent expense from leases is recorded on a straight-line basis over the lease period. The net excess of rent expense over the actual cash paid is recorded as deferred rent.
Foreign Currency Translation
We use the U.S. Dollar as the reporting currency for our financial statements. Functional currency is the currency of the primary economic environment in which an entity operates. The functional currency of our wholly owned subsidiary is the Australian dollar.
Transactions in currencies other than the functional currency of a specific entity are recorded at exchange rates prevailing on the dates of the transactions. At the end of each reporting period, the monetary assets and liabilities of the entity denominated in foreign currencies are translated at the rate of exchange at the financial reporting date while non-monetary assets and liabilities are translated at historical rates. Revenues and expenses are translated at the exchange rates approximating those in effect on the date of the transactions. Exchange gains and losses arising on translation are included in the statements of profit or loss.
The financial statements of entities that have a functional currency different from that of the Companies (“foreign operations”) are translated into United States dollars as follows: assets and liabilities – at the closing rate at the date of the statement of financial position, and income and expenses – at the average rate of the period (as this is considered a reasonable approximation to actual rates). All resulting changes are recognized in other comprehensive income as currency translation differences and taken into a separate component of equity.
Accumulated Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) includes foreign currency translation adjustments related to the Company’s subsidiary in Australia and is excluded from the accompanying condensed consolidated statements of operations.
Australia Research and Development Tax Credit
The Company’s wholly-owned Australian subsidiary incurs research and development expenses, primarily in the course of conducting clinical trials. The Company’s Australian research and development activities qualify for the Australian government’s tax credit program, which provides a 41.0 percent credit for qualifying research and development expenses. The tax credit does not depend on the Company’s generation of future taxable income or ongoing tax status or position. Accordingly, the credit is not considered an element of income tax accounting under ASC 740 and is recorded against qualifying research and development expenses.
The Tax Cuts and Jobs Act (the “Act”) was enacted in December 2017. Among other things, the Act reduced the U.S. federal corporate tax rate from 34 percent to 21 percent as of January 1, 2018 and eliminated the alternative minimum tax (“AMT”) for corporations. Since the deferred tax assets are expected to reverse in a future year, it has been tax effected using the 21% federal corporate tax rate. As a result of the reduction in the corporate tax rate, the Company decreased its gross deferred tax assets by approximately $12.4 million which was offset by a corresponding decrease to the valuation allowance as of July 31, 2018, which has no impact on the Company’s consolidated financial statements for the year ended July 31, 2018. The Company will continue to analyze the Tax Act to assess its full effects on the Company’s financial results, including disclosures, for the Company’s fiscal year ending July 31, 2019, but the Company does not expect the Tax Act to have a material impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements.
On December 22, 2017, the Securities and Exchange Commission issued Staff Accounting Bulletin 118, which allows a measurement period, not to exceed one year, to finalize the accounting for the income tax effects of the Act. Until the accounting for the income tax effects of the Act is complete, the reported amounts are based on reasonable estimates, are disclosed as provisional and reflect any adjustments in subsequent periods as estimates are refined or the accounting of the tax effects are completed.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In January 2016, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (the “FASB”) issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) 2016-01, Financial Instruments—Overall (Subtopic 825-10): Recognition and Measurement of Financial Assets and Financial Liabilities (“ASU 2016-01”), which addresses certain aspects of recognition, measurement, presentation, and disclosure of financial instruments. ASU 2016-01 is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods within those annual periods, and earlier adoption is not permitted except for certain provisions. The Company adopted this standard on August 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (“ASU 2016-15”), to reduce diversity in practice of how certain transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows. The effective date for ASU 2016-15 is for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2017, and interim periods within those fiscal years. The Company adopted this standard on August 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In January 2017, the FASB issued guidance codified in ASU 2017-04, Intangibles—Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”). Under this guidance, an entity will no longer determine goodwill impairment by calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by assigning the fair value of a reporting unit to all of its assets and liabilities as if that reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination. Instead, an entity will compare the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods therein, with early adoption permitted. The Company adopted this standard on August 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures. The Company does not currently have any intangible or goodwill balances.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718) (“ASU 2017-09”), which provides further guidance as to what constitutes a modification to the terms of share-based compensation, in order to create consistency in practice among all entities. ASU 2017-09 becomes effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods thereafter; early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this standard on August 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Equity from Liabilities (Topic 480) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815) (“ASU 2017-11”), which addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down-round features and finalizes pending guidance related to mandatorily redeemable noncontrolling interests. Under ASU 2017-11, when determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, a down-round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock. ASU 2017-11 becomes effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods thereafter; early adoption is permitted. The Company adopted this standard on August 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
In June 2018, the FASB issued ASU 2018-07, “Compensation—Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Nonemployee Share-Based Payment Accounting” (ASU 2018-07), which expands the scope of Topic 718 to include all share-based payment transactions for acquiring goods and services from nonemployees. ASU 2018-07 specifies that Topic 718 applies to all share-based payment transactions in which the grantor acquires goods and services to be used or consumed in its own operations by issuing share-based payment awards. ASU 2018-07 also clarifies that Topic 718 does not apply to share-based payments used to effectively provide (1) financing to the issuer or (2) awards granted in conjunction with selling goods or services to customers as part of a contract accounted for under ASC 606. ASU 2018-07 is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods within those fiscal years, with early adoption permitted, but no earlier than our adoption of ASC 606. The Company chose to early adopt ASU 2018-07 on August 1, 2018. The adoption of this standard did not have a material impact on the Company’s unaudited condensed consolidated financial statements and related disclosures.
There were no accounting pronouncements during the three months ended October 31, 2018 that the Company anticipates will have a material impact on the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or related disclosures. See Note 2 to the Annual Report for a discussion of certain recent accounting pronouncements not yet adopted by the Company.
The entire disclosure for all significant accounting policies of the reporting entity.
Reference 1: http://fasb.org/us-gaap/role/ref/legacyRef