Significant Accounting Policies
|12 Months Ended|
Jul. 31, 2017
|Accounting Policies [Abstract]|
|Significant Accounting Policies||
Note 2—Significant Accounting Policies
The Company operates in a single reporting segment — the discovery and development of novel immunotherapeutic product candidates to improve treatment options for patients and physicians for a wide range of oncology indications.
Use of Estimates
The accompanying consolidated financial statements have been prepared in conformity with U.S. GAAP, which requires management to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets and liabilities and disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities at the date of the financial statements and the reported amounts of expenses during the reporting period. Such estimates include stock-based compensation, accounting for long-lived assets and accounting for income taxes including the related valuation allowance on the deferred tax asset and uncertain tax positions. The Company bases its estimates on historical experience and on various other assumptions that it believes are reasonable under the circumstances, the results of which form the basis for making judgments about the carrying values of assets and liabilities that are not readily apparent from other sources. On an ongoing basis, the Company reviews its estimates to ensure that they appropriately reflect changes in the business or as new information becomes available. Actual results could differ materially from these estimates.
Cash and Cash Equivalents
The Company considers all highly liquid investments that are readily convertible into cash and have an original maturity of three months or less at the time of purchase to be cash equivalents.
Concentrations and Credit Risk
The Company maintains cash balances at a small number of financial institutions, where such balances commonly exceed the $250,000 amount insured by the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation. The Company has not experienced any losses in such accounts and management believes that the Company does not have significant credit risk with respect to its cash and cash equivalents.
Property and Equipment
The Company’s capitalization threshold is $5,000 for property and equipment. The cost of property and equipment is depreciated on a straight-line basis over the estimated useful lives of the related assets. The useful lives of property and equipment for the purpose of computing depreciation are as follows:
Impairment of Long-Lived Assets
The Company periodically assesses the carrying value of intangible and other long-lived assets, and whenever events or changes in circumstances indicate that the carrying amount of an asset might not be recoverable. The assets are considered to be impaired if the Company determines that the carrying value may not be recoverable based upon its assessment, which includes consideration of the following events or changes in circumstances:
If the assets are considered to be impaired, the impairment recognized is the amount by which the carrying value of the assets exceeds the fair value of the assets. Fair value is determined by the application of discounted cash flow models to project cash flows from the asset. In addition, the Company bases estimates of the useful lives and related amortization or depreciation expense on its subjective estimate of the period the assets will generate revenue or otherwise be used by it. Assets to be disposed of are reported at the lower of the carrying amount or fair value, less selling costs. The Company also periodically reviews the lives assigned to long-lived assets to ensure that the initial estimates do not exceed any revised estimated periods from which the Company expects to realize cash flows from its assets.
The carrying amounts for cash and cash equivalents, prepaid expenses, accounts payable and accrued expenses approximate fair value due to their short-term nature, generally less than three months. It is management’s opinion that the Company is not exposed to significant interest, currency, or credit risks arising from its other financial instruments and that their fair values approximate their carrying values except where expressly disclosed.
The Company assesses its warrants as either equity or a liability based upon the characteristics and provisions of each instrument. Warrants classified as equity are recorded at fair value as of the date of issuance on the Company’s balance sheet and no further adjustments to their valuation are made. Warrants classified as derivative liabilities and other derivative financial instruments that require separate accounting as liabilities are recorded on the Company’s balance sheet at their fair value on the date of issuance and are re-measured on each subsequent balance sheet date until such instruments are exercised or expire, with any changes in the fair value between reporting periods recorded as other income or expense. Management estimates the fair value of these liabilities using option pricing models and assumptions that are based on the individual characteristics of the warrants or other instruments on the valuation date, as well as assumptions for future financings, expected volatility, expected life, yield and risk-free interest rate. As of July 31, 2017, all outstanding warrants issued by the Company were classified as equity.
Net Loss Per Share
The Company computes basic net loss per common share by dividing the applicable net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period. Diluted earnings per share is computed using the weighted average number of common shares outstanding during the period, plus additional shares to account for the dilutive effect of potential future issuances of common stock relating to stock options and other potentially dilutive securities using the treasury stock method. In calculating diluted earnings per share, the dilutive effect of stock options is computed using the average market price for the applicable period. In addition, the assumed proceeds under the treasury stock method include the average unrecognized compensation expense of stock options that are in-the-money. This results in the “assumed” buyback of additional shares, thereby reducing the dilutive impact of stock options. The Company did not include shares underlying stock options, restricted stock units and warrants issued and outstanding during any of the periods presented in the computation of net loss per share, as the effect would have been anti-dilutive.
Potentially dilutive outstanding securities excluded from diluted net loss per common share because of their anti-dilutive effect were as follows:
The Company grants equity-based awards (typically stock options or restricted stock units) under our stock-based compensation plan and outside of our stock-based compensation plan, with terms generally similar to the terms under our stock-based compensation plan. The Company estimates the fair value of stock option awards using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. This fair value is then amortized over the requisite service periods of the awards. The Black-Scholes option valuation model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including price volatility of the underlying stock, risk-free interest rate, dividend yield, and expected life of the option. The Company estimates the fair value of restricted stock unit awards based on the closing price of the Company’s common stock on the date of issuance. Changes in assumptions used under the Black-Scholes option valuation model could materially affect the Company’s net loss and net loss per share. Stock options granted to non-employees are re-measured at each reporting period until fully vested, with any change in fair value expensed.
Employee Stock Purchase Plan
Employees may elect to participate in the Company’s stockholder approved employee stock purchase plan. The stock purchase plan allows for the purchase of the Company’s common stock at not less than 85% of the lesser of (i) the fair market value of a share of common stock on the beginning date of the offering period or (ii) the fair market value of a share of common stock on the purchase date of the offering period, subject to a share and dollar limit as defined in the plan and subject to the applicable legal requirements. There are two six-month offering periods during each fiscal year, ending on January 31, 2017 and July 31, 2017.
In accordance with applicable accounting guidance, the fair value of awards under the stock purchase plan is calculated at the beginning of each offering period. The Company estimates the fair value of the awards using the Black-Scholes option valuation model. The Black-Scholes option valuation model requires the input of subjective assumptions, including price volatility of the underlying stock, risk-free interest rate, dividend yield, and the offering period. This fair value is then amortized at the beginning of the offering period. Stock-based compensation expense is based on awards expected to be purchased at the beginning of the offering period, and therefore is reduced when participants withdraw during the offering period.
Accumulated and Other Comprehensive Income (Loss)
Accumulated other comprehensive income (loss) includes foreign currency translation adjustments related to the Company’s subsidiary in Australia and is excluded from the accompanying consolidated statements of operations.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
The following discussion includes recent accounting pronouncements that are anticipated to have an impact on or are otherwise related to the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or related disclosures. Recent accounting pronouncements that are not anticipated to have an impact on or are unrelated to the Company’s financial condition, results of operations or related disclosures are not discussed.
In August 2014, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (“FASB”), issued Accounting Standards Update (“ASU”) No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements—Going Concern (Subtopic 205-40): Disclosure of Uncertainties about an Entity’s Ability to Continue as a Going Concern, which is intended to define management’s responsibility to evaluate whether there is substantial doubt about an organization’s ability to continue as a going concern and to provide related financial statement footnote disclosures. This ASU provides guidance to an organization’s management, with principles and definitions that are intended to reduce diversity in the timing and content of disclosures that are commonly provided by organizations in the financial statement footnotes. The amendments are effective for annual periods ending after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016. The Company adopted this guidance for the annual period ended July 31, 2017.
In February 2016, the FASB issued Accounting Standards Update No. 2016-02, Leases (“ASU 2016-02”). ASU 2016-02 establishes a right-of-use model that requires a lessee to record an asset and liability on the balance sheet for all leases with terms longer than 12 months. ASU 2016-02 is effective for fiscal years and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2018. A modified retrospective transition approach is required for lessees for capital and operating leases existing at, or entered into after, the beginning of the earliest comparative period presented in the financial statements. The Company is currently evaluating the impact of the new standard on its consolidated financial statements.
In March 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718): Improvements to Employee Share-Based Payment Accounting. The amendments cover both public and private companies that issue share-based payment awards to their employees. Under the amendment, several aspects of the accounting for share-based payment award transactions are simplified, including: (i) income tax consequences; (ii) classification of awards as either equity or liabilities; and (iii) classification on the statement of cash flows. For public companies, the amendments are effective for annual periods beginning after December 15, 2016, and interim periods within those annual periods. Early application is permitted; however, the Company does not intend to early adopt and the Company does not believe that adoption of these clarifying amendments will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In May 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-09, Compensation - Stock Compensation (Topic 718) (“ASU 2017-09”), which provides further guidance as to what constitutes a modification to the terms of share-based compensation, in order to create consistency in practice among all entities. ASU 2017-09 becomes effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017, including interim periods thereafter; early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. The Company intends to adopt this standard as of August 1, 2018, and does not anticipate this standard will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
In August 2016, the FASB issued ASU No. 2016-15, Statement of Cash Flows (“ASU 2016-15”), to reduce diversity in practice of how certain transactions are classified in the statement of cash flows. ASU 2016-15 is effective for fiscal and interim periods beginning after December 15, 2017. The Company is currently evaluating the impact the adoption of the new standard will have on its consolidated financial statements.
In January 2017, the FASB issued guidance codified in ASU 2017-04, Intangibles-Goodwill and Other (Topic 350) Simplifying the Test for Goodwill Impairment (“ASU 2017-04”). Under this guidance, an entity will no longer determine goodwill impairment by calculating the implied fair value of goodwill by assigning the fair value of a reporting unit to all of its assets and liabilities as if that reporting unit had been acquired in a business combination. Instead, an entity will compare the fair value of a reporting unit with its carrying amount and recognize an impairment charge for the amount by which the carrying amount exceeds the reporting unit’s fair value. The guidance is effective for fiscal years beginning after December 15, 2019, including interim periods therein, with early adoption permitted. The Company will evaluate the impact of this guidance and expects to adopt the standard in the first calendar quarter of 2019. The Company does not currently have any intangible or goodwill balances.
In July 2017, the FASB issued ASU 2017-11, Earnings Per Share (Topic 260), Distinguishing Equity from Liabilities (Topic 480) and Derivatives and Hedging (Topic 815) (“ASU 2017-11”), which addresses the complexity of accounting for certain financial instruments with down-round features and finalizes pending guidance related to mandatorily redeemable noncontrolling interests. Under ASU 2017-11, when determining whether certain financial instruments should be classified as liabilities or equity instruments, a down-round feature no longer precludes equity classification when assessing whether the instrument is indexed to an entity’s own stock. ASU 2017-11 becomes effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2018, including interim periods thereafter; early adoption is permitted, including adoption in an interim period. As the Company currently does not hold this type of financing instrument, the Company does not anticipate the standard will have a material impact on its consolidated financial statements.
The entire disclosure for the general note to the financial statements for the reporting entity which may include, descriptions of the basis of presentation, business description, significant accounting policies, consolidations, reclassifications, new pronouncements not yet adopted and changes in accounting principles.
Reference 1: http://www.xbrl.org/2003/role/presentationRef